Train travel in Zimbabwe . . .

Note that 1 ppm is equal to 1 mg per kilogram of sample. In the table, However, 1 ppm is equal to 1 mg per 1 km sample. This means that in the table This interpretation is true for the rest of the figures in the table. The format of the responses is that 8 out of the 10 questions required brief answers.

Social enterprise

The ban on the packaging and transportation of opaque beer in such facilities is with immediate effect. Failure to comply with this directive will leave the Council with no option but to institute legal action against such manufacturers or traders. Bridget Munyumbwe, 45 of Kabwata Estates for failing to subscribe to the solid waste management system. Bridget Munyumbwe was fined K

1 Hour Ago. The bodies were recovered in and around Paradise, California, a mountain community some 90 miles north of Sacramento left devastated by the Camp Fire, California Department of Forestry.

The word “Angola” derives from the title used by the rulers of the Ndongo state. The title ngola was first mentioned in Portuguese writings in the sixteenth century. A Portuguese colony founded on the coast in also came to be known as Angola. At the end of the nineteenth century, the name was given to a much larger territory that was envisaged to come under Portuguese influence.

These plans materialized slowly; not until the beginning of the twentieth century did Portuguese colonialism reach the borders of present-day Angola. Later the “Popular” was dropped. Angola may not classify as either a country or a culture. Since , war has destroyed cultural institutions, forced people to flee, and divided the territory between the belligerent. Thus one cannot speak of a single national culture. It is difficult to obtain reliable information because the war precludes research in many areas.

Angola is a country of , square miles approximately 1. There are great variations in climate and geography, including rain forests in the north, drier coastal lands, the fertile central highlands, sandy soils in the east, and desert zones in the Kunene Cuene and Kuando Kubango provinces. Apart from large rivers such as the Zaire, Kwanza Cuanza , Kunene, Kubango Cubango , Zambezi, and Kuando, there are many smaller rivers, some of which are not perennial.

AirPort Codes

Our rail experts offer a guide to the 10 best African rail journeys for Rovos Rail This luxury train of air-conditioned entirely en suite rooms with double or twin beds has to be the most comfortable way to see southern Africa — especially in a Royal Suite, which takes up half a carriage. The beautifully restored or appointed wood-panelled coaches include dining, lounge and observation cars, and there is a gift shop on board.

Oscillating between Cape Town and Pretoria, the two train sets each include two lounge cars, dining cars and an observation car, and some of the all en suite cabins have the rare facility of wheels of a full-sized bath.

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Africa Continent Information and Tourism The planet’s second-largest and second-most densely populated continent, Africa is currently called home by more than one billion people, which equates to roughly 12 percent of the global population. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro is a record-breaking free-standing mountain and features no less than three volcanic cones. At the other end of the scale, Lake Assal in Djibouti is actually the lowest point in the whole of Africa, while the sweeping sand dunes of the Sahara Desert offer something completely different.

Known for its diamond mines and extensive gold resources, Africa also offers some epic tourist magnets, such as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt , which is actually one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. South Africa is another popular country and is where you will encounter the famous Table Mountain at Cape Town and a multitude of soaring skyscrapers in the modern metropolis of Johannesburg.

Many visitors choose to volunteer in Africa as part of an international project, giving their time freely to teach, improve human rights and carry out much-needed conservation work. Others come to Africa for its wildlife, with spreading national parks and game reserves being home to elephants, giraffes, lions and zebras, amongst many other indigenous African animals.

Kenya is an especially popular safari destination in Africa and features many superb wildlife reserves. On the far north-westerly tip of Africa and lying next to Algeria, the country of Morocco is another popular tourist destination. Morocco’s capital city of Marrakech offers everything from sumptuous Moroccan palaces and mosques, to kasbahs and an enormous lively market souq known throughout the world.

Monuments and Historic Sites

Late Stone Age human skeletons from about 4, years ago. Kalundu Mound, Kalomo, site of a village from at least the ninth century until the twelfth century. On the western shore of Lake Bangweulu , just south of Samfya, is an outcrop of rock which bears a large number of artificial grinding grooves dating back possibly to the Iron Age. It is thought they were used for grinding and polishing axes. Leopard’s Hill Cave, Lusaka District. Makwe Rock Shelter, Katete:

A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in financial, social and environmental well-being—this may include maximizing social impact alongside profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form (depending on in which country the entity exists and the legal forms.

Their shared common thread is that they all operate to achieve a balanced financial, social and environmental set of objectives. Within the Trading Enterprises there are employee owned enterprises and membership owned enterprises. Financial Institutions Saving and Loans organisations such as credit unions, micro credit organisations, co-operative banks and revolving loan funds are membership owned social enterprises. Credit Unions were first established in the s in Germany and spread internationally.

Co-operative Banks have likewise been around since the s, owned as a subsidiary of a membership co-operative. In recent times Microcredit organisations have sprung up in many developing countries to great effect. Local currency exchanges and social value exchanges are also being established.

Africa Continent

Its backdrop is dominated by the steep Zambezi Escarpment, but the Zambezi River is the main attraction, where tranquil yet exciting excursions by boat are an excellent way to appreciate the river and its wildlife. Lusaka Province Ideal for viewing: Cape buffalo, African elephant, cheetah, leopard, lion Excellent for: Its eastern boundary is the meandering Luangwa River whose regular changes in course leave scenic oxbow lagoons.

The Oktoberfest is a two-week festival held each year in Munich, Germany during late September and early is attended by six million people each year and has inspired numerous similar events using the name Oktoberfest in Germany and around the world, many of which were founded by German immigrants or their descendants.

One can find Oktoberfest celebrations mixing German traditions, food and beer with local culture outside of Germany. The party emerged by the hand of the first German immigrants. This festival attracts thousands of tourists for two consecutive weekends. Australia[ edit ] In Australia, the universities are notorious in their celebrations of Oktoberfest every year, and as students graduated and moved on, this rolled over into pubs and restaurants in the university areas.

After the Oktoberfest Party the university council banned the celebration of the festival on university campus grounds. The event has since expanded to Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. The event now attracts over 50, patrons annually making it the largest Oktoberfest celebration in Australia. Sydney also have their instalment of this event located within Australia Technology Park.

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The African Transition Zone cuts across the southern edge of the Sahara Desert at the widest portion of the continent. The realm can be further broken down into regional components: Maps vary in terms of which countries are included in each region, but this general geographic breakdown is helpful in identifying country locations and characteristics. Madagascar is a large island off the southeastern coast of Africa and is usually not included with the other regions because its geographic qualities and biodiversity are quite different from the mainland.

INTRODUCTION. The source, nature, process and spread of traditional iron smelting in East, 1 Central and Southern Africa has been documented. Fagan 2 asserts that the Zambian Society which is part of Central Africa, lived in a stone age in its historical background in the earliest time. This implies that the inhabitants had neither domestic livestock nor agricultural produce, mining and metal.

Nile view from the Cairo Marriott Hotel. Until his death in , Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned him the title of founder of modern Egypt. Drawing inspiration from Paris , Isma’il envisioned a city of maidans and wide avenues; due to financial constraints, only some of them, in the area now composing Downtown Cairo , came to fruition. Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in , [28] five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate.

During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City , Zamalek , and Heliopolis. Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Maidan Tahrir and the Nile Corniche , and improved the city’s network of bridges and highways. The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile Nile Delta , prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them.

Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic hub for North Africa and the Arab world , with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the Arab League , operating out of the city. In , Cairo was hit by an earthquake causing deaths, 6, injuries and 50, people homeless.

More than 50, protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area’s wireless services were reported to be impaired. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes.

Oktoberfest celebrations

The aquaculture value chain in Zambia has experienced significant growth and upgrading in recent years. Abstract After decades of government and donor-run programs that sustained extensive aquaculture systems, Zambia has experienced market-led capital investments that have facilitated significant growth in production. The emerging commercial sector is characterized by investments in intensive cage and pond-based aquaculture of mostly non-native tilapia species, which today makes up the bulk of annual production.

To better understand this transformation we used a Global Value Chain GVC analysis to examine evidence of upgrading trajectories and various forms of coordination that govern the chain.

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The sixteen-year-long war in Mozambique Insight on Africa, 5, 1 Emerson, The Battle for Mozambique: Whilst clearly a national struggle, it also brought in regional players like Rhodesia and South Africa and even Tanzania and Zambia-all of whom had a vested interest in the outcome of this struggle for supremacy. Ordinary Mozambicans paid dearly for the war-an estimated 1 million dead; millions more made refugees or internally displaced, hundreds of thousands maimed and the economy in ruins.

Previous studies of the Mozambican war are problematic at best-having embraced the narrative emanating from one or the other side. In addition, other studies, too, found themselves rather naively deeming the sophisticated propaganda emanating from apartheid South Africa as reflecting the ‘truth’, and this propaganda soon found its way into mainstream academic literature. In seeking to discover the facts behind the myths Stephen Emerson’s latest book on this much misunderstood conflict is a must-read for those seeking to understand this turbulent period of Mozambican and Southern African history.

Emerson’s work is a veritable tour de force based not merely on the existing academic literature but also on face-to-face interviews with war veterans, extensive email correspondence with former belligerents, field notes, and government and rebel documents which he painstakingly gathered for the past 15 years. What emerges from the pages of this erudite book is the definitive account of the Mozambican civil war. Academics will find the thorough research and the intellectual rigour engaged in praise-worthy, whilst policy-makers will find Emerson’s lessons learned from the carnage on the battlefield or the successful mediation which resulted in the signing of the General Peace Agreement on 4 October and which ended the conflict of interest.

Whilst Emerson regards his book as a military history of the conflict waged in Mozambique-it is far more than that. The reader is exposed to the strategic calculations of key actors as they have to respond to changing circumstances.

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